Mobile Health and Nutrition Team Service Implementation

Mobile Health and Nutrition Team Service Implementation
Mobile Health and Nutrition Team Service Implementation


Most international locations proclaim that populations have the precise to have common and equitable entry to the very best acceptable well being care.1–3 As an alternate strategy, cellular well being groups are used to ship well being service for hard-to-reach and underserved settings and has been traced again within the twelfth century. Mobile well being service is outlined as delivering well being look after the group regardless of the shoppers want of journey to get the well being providers.4–6

In developed international locations cellular well being service provision is taken into account as an modern different intervention mannequin for offering well being service for these in want.7–9 Similarly, it has been acknowledged because the simpler service supply strategy in battle and drought affected settings, in pastoral areas with marginalized populations as indicated by research performed in Afghanistan,5 Chad10 and Nigeria.11 Similarly, Ethiopia has additionally initiated cellular well being providers launched by growth companions in two pastoralist (Somali and Afar) areas of the nation.

Ethiopia has an estimated 115 million inhabitants by the yr 2021 the place the bulk (79.2%) of the inhabitants resides in rural settings.12 In addition, pastoralist communities are estimated to be 12% of the Ethiopian inhabitants. Despite the progress up to now 20 years, the nation is among the many poorest nations globally with completely feeble human growth metrics. Ethiopia nonetheless encounters unprecedented social and financial hardships, together with political unrest, excessive ranges of poverty, political unrest, ethnic conflicts, poor infrastructure, drought and meals insecurity and insufficient social providers.13,14

The structure and well being coverage of Ethiopia additionally acknowledged that each one residents have the precise to entry healthcare providers.15–17 The authorities of Ethiopia applied MHNT program in each areas in an effort to enhance accessibility and high quality of important healthcare providers for unreached populations akin to Pastoralists and Agro-pastoralists with poor or restricted fundamental infrastructure in an effort to guarantee to common well being protection UHC. However, the present implementation standing of this MNHT isn’t assessed in a complete method.


This examine aimed to seize the present implementation standing of the MNHT from this system managers, supporting companions and resolution makers at every degree of the well being system construction in Afar and Somali areas to tell coverage and follow at nationwide degree.


Study Design and Period

The examine employed a qualitative phenomenological design. The examine has been performed in Afar and Somali areas of Ethiopia between January 1–30, 2022. A complete of six woredas from Afar and Somali Regions having the MHNT program had been included.

Study Population and Sample Size

The examine consists of doc evaluate and interview of examine contributors who had been a part of the MHNT program implementation. The examine contributors had been grouped into: RHB MHNT coordinator, woreda well being workplace MHNT coordinator, MHNT chief and representatives from lively implementing companions. The ultimate pattern dimension for this specific examine was decided by contemplating the purpose of knowledge saturation. For this specific examine, 17 examine contributors had been included for the KIIs. Respondents had been chosen purposively primarily based on their work positions, experiences and organizational affiliations.

Data Collection and Management

The interview guides had been developed utilizing the weather of the CFIR framework. We tailored the CFIR by contemplating the realities of the native setting and the character of the MHNT program as an intervention bundle.

The CFIR is being extensively utilized in implementation analysis due to its complete overarching constructs to incorporate multilevel elements that have an effect on the implementation of interventions. The CFIR incorporates 5 main domains: intervention traits, interior and outer settings, particular person traits, and the implementation course of (Figure 1). These areas work together in a sophisticated technique to affect implementation effectiveness. In our examine, with the CFIR framework, the intervention is the MHNT program; the outer setting entails the political dedication and donor help; the interior setting encompasses the well being workplace and well being facility readiness together with performance of MHNTs; traits of people confer with the well being employees dedication and notion of the group concerning the MHNT, and the method of implementation has been thought-about by way of facilitators and obstacles of implementation.

Figure 1 CIFR diagram with domains and respective constructs.

The knowledge assortment device was reviewed by consultants on the sphere and corrections had been made accordingly. In addition, the information assortment device was pretested earlier than precise knowledge assortment. We collected the information from the examine contributors by utilizing key informant interview and doc evaluate strategies.

We undertook in-depth interviews with key RHB MHNT program coordinators, woreda coordinators and representatives from implementing companions to seize their views on the institution, effectiveness, current challenges and the sustainability of the brand new program in each areas.

Additionally, knowledge had been collected from exercise and technical experiences that confirmed this system efficiency at every degree together with administration minutes, administrative and supportive supervision. Besides, knowledge on well being care utilization was thought-about for the interval between 2010 and 2013 to evaluate the pattern over time. The knowledge was collected by senior skilled consultants working on the Ministry of Health of Ethiopia. The qualitative knowledge was captured with the audio-recorded face-to-face interviews. During knowledge assortment, probing questions had been requested to respondents to additional clarify the questions in-detail. Each interview took on common 45 minutes.

Data Analysis

The knowledge evaluation was performed by the six analysis staff members (1 PhD and 5 MPH) having experience in qualitative research. First, audio-recorded interviews have been transcribed verbatim after which translated to English. Subsequently, the investigators checked the right transcription and translation of the the audio file. Open-code software program was used for ultimate knowledge evaluation. Accordingly, coding was performed to seize and relate current patterns. Then, themes had been recognized primarily based on associated patterns from the information. At the time of study, revisions to recognized themes and codes had been thought-about taking in to account the data captured primarily based on subsequent further interviews. Eventually, to prepare the findings of this specific examine, thematic evaluation was thought-about with illustrative quotes offered as obligatory.

Ethical Consideration

Ethical clearance to conduct this examine has been secured from the Ethiopian Public Health Institute (EPHI) IRB. During knowledge assortment, knowledgeable consent was sought from every examine participant. Moreover, confidentiality of respondent’s data was ensured throughout knowledge evaluation, interpretation and presentation.


This exploratory evaluation knowledgeable the standing of MHNT service implementation modality. In addition, the evaluation summarized each inside and exterior facilitators, obstacles of the service provision modality and the overview of respondent’s notion on the effectiveness, acceptability, sustainability and their private advice concerning MHNT program. The outcomes are organized by 5 main domains as offered under.

Program Establishment and Implementation Process

The program began in 2004 for malnutrition, measles, and drought response simply as a fire-fighter mechanism with none recognized construction and guideline focusing on chosen woredas within the Somali area. The formal guideline-based follow began in 2011 with a broad aim and structured technical and management construction.

Almost all of the respondents from regional degree coordinators to MHNTs degree indicated there may be aligned planning of MHNT service with all involved stakeholders on the woreda degree. The planning follows annual Woreda-based planning and the MHNT particular plan disaggregated by the recognized hard-to-reach areas.

One of the Woreda MHNT coordinator defined that:

Following annual woreda primarily based planning, the month-to-month and weekly plan of MHNTs is ready at woreda and PHCU degree. An in depth motion plan and schedule communicated to the group by way of the social mobilizer and kebele leaders.

The reporting of the MHNTs follows the common District well being data system 2 (DHIS2) traits. But, they didn’t meet the usual knowledge completeness and timelines. Moreover, the documentation and archiving are poor. But a lot of the visited groups didn’t often evaluate efficiency in opposition to the plan earlier than reporting. A delegate from UNICEF and RHBs additionally recommended incorporation of MHNT reporting column on DHIS2 for simply monitoring of the efficiency by MHNT service suppliers.

The quantity {and professional} mixing of the staff indicated under the usual in all assessed MHNTs. In addition, MHNT staff members technical and information hole was reported in each areas.

One of the respondents talked about that

Even these with normal staff composition fail to avail themselves in all of the deliberate work websites below their catchment inflicting compromised service provision by way of entry and high quality.

A delegate from USAID Transform-HDR additionally talked about that

…throughout implementation, well being employees with obligatory skilled combine ought to be chosen to supply service by way of prescheduled and chosen onerous to achieve areas within the PHCU catchment.

Another respondent from Gewane Woreda commented that:

MHNT normal is current however, there may be hole in availing the prescribed combine at all times and in any respect locations.

Most of the visited MHNTs reported that the logistics and provide for offering service packages can be found. But a lot of the groups missed having anthropometric measurements, very important signal measurements, different diagnostic aids, registration, and recording supplies. Moreover, the necessity for extra service packages is reported from Afar and Somali areas.

Program Effectiveness

Overall, the important thing informants talked about that the MHNTs are efficient in guaranteeing entry and high quality of well being providers. In this examine, the MHNTs had been reported as an efficient modality to handle well being circumstances throughout drought and emergencies.

Somali RHB MHNT coordinator reported that

The MHNT play a key position in emergency response and lively surveillance as they’re at all times reaching essentially the most unreachable and pocket areas that aren’t reachable with formal facility-based well being service provisions.

There can also be a common acknowledgment for the MHNT program in offering service to the underserved communities on this specific examine.

One of the respondents talked about that:

The providers offered by the MHNTs to the group stay ample by way of scope and addressing precedence well being providers. In specific, service uptakes increment in most service supply indicators has been noticed particularly in maternal and little one well being service areas.

In phrases of cost-effectiveness, some respondents talked about that this system incurs an enormous price range associated to the car, gasoline, and per diems. On the opposite hand, the vast majority of the important thing informants consider that it’s nonetheless cost-effective for the reason that MHNT is designed and applied to deal with inhabitants teams that aren’t reached with formal facility-based well being service provision.

Facilitators and Barriers

There have been a number of success elements within the functioning of MHNTs in each areas. The set up of presidency possession of this system and institutionalization utilizing reviewing performances and supportive supervision platforms is among the facilitators for the profitable implementation of this system. The complete help from developmental companions in each areas is one other facilitator for the efficient implementation of this system.

Different challenges compromise the effectiveness of MHNTs in each areas. The foremost barrier to program implementation is the hole in service integration inside and throughout sectors in any respect ranges of the well being sector.

Goljano woreda MHNT focal talked about that

there may be hole in integration inside sector and throughout sectors (different sectors think about problems with IDPs, Hard to achieve areas and even pure disasters as solely the difficulty of well being sectors).

The insufficient staffing of the MHNT, gaps in guaranteeing correct skilled combine as per the usual, frequent turnover of contract well being employees, and ability gaps hamper the efficient and sustainable implementation of this system in each Afar and Somali areas.

A MHNT coordinator reported that

staffs being contract there may be turnover and capability hole amongst MHNT groups.

The implementation of the MHNT program can also be largely depending on NGO funding creating donor fatigue which imposes sustainability points for the long run. Besides, the recurrent price range scarcity, particularly for car gasoline and upkeep is a typical problem reported by the important thing informants.

Gewane Woreda MHNT coordinator stated that

…within the woreda, there may be recurrent price range scarcity specifically for Vehicle gasoline and upkeep.

The different problem that hinders MHTNs program implementation is motion restraint with considerations like recurrent conflicts and related safety points in each areas. On high of this, the unpredicted mobility of the group has additionally affected the service offered by way of the MHNT.

Acceptability and Sustainability

Based on this evaluation MHNT technique has excessive demand and acceptability by the group and the service supplier. Regarding the group satisfaction, the notion concerning the MHNT is big and their testimonial is heartwarming. A respondent defined his notion by saying;

There is little doubt concerning the acceptability of the cellular well being service locally, MHNTs service suppliers and woreda consultants as it’s the solely approach for my part. We can attain the unserved group in all elements of the woreda.

Another respondent expressed his opinion about MHT as

…The spine of Afar individuals.

In some areas, a group slaughtered goats to welcome and reveal their appreciation in direction of MHNT service indicating the group’s acceptance and appreciation for the staff and the service they supply. A respondent shared his expertise of serving to a mom by way of supply and she or he referred to as her new child title following his title.

For sustaining this system, the important thing informants talked about that authorities possession is the great driver for sustainability with the management focus at every degree of the well being system. There can also be a suggestion that this system ought to be scaled up at nationwide degree with tailor-made implementation methods that soak up to account the native context.

A coordinator from Afar area reported that

I like to recommend for this system to be led by the woreda and could also be PHCU degree.

Tulu Guled woreda well being workplace head additionally complimented that: “National degree coverage and establishing construction at every degree of the well being system are vital to make sure sustainability”.


This examine confirmed that the MHNTs are efficient in guaranteeing entry and high quality of well being providers. Based on this evaluation MHNT technique has excessive demand and acceptability by the group and the service supplier. Institutionalization utilizing reviewing performances and supportive supervision platforms is among the facilitators for the profitable implementation of this system. The foremost barrier to program implementation is the hole in service integration inside and throughout sectors in any respect ranges of the well being sector. The insufficient staffing of the MHNT, gaps in guaranteeing correct skilled combine as per the usual, frequent turnover of contract well being employees and ability gaps hamper the efficient implementation in each areas.

Overall, the important thing informants talked about that the MHNTs are efficient in guaranteeing entry and high quality of well being providers. All the KIIs indicated that the MHNTs are different options to deal with distant areas not lined by the static well being service supply strategy which is in step with a discovering from one other examine.18 Similarly, one other examine reported that MHNT applications are related to extend well being service entry primarily based on the rising calls for of the society.8,19 A examine from Afghanistan additionally confirmed that sustained and scheduled MHNT program implementation resulted in higher efficiency on maternal and little one well being.5 Likewise in Nigeria, devoted cellular groups enhance service entry for distant settings.11

This examine additionally confirmed that there’s a common acknowledgment on the necessity for MHNTs to supply equitable well being look after the underserved communities. An analysis examine from UNICEF additionally reported comparable discovering the place MHNTs may very well be thought-about as an choice to help the prevailing routine well being system in each areas.18

In phrases of cost-effectiveness, some respondents talked about that this system incurs an enormous price range associated to the car, gasoline, and per diems. On the opposite hand, the vast majority of the important thing informants consider that it’s nonetheless cost-effective for the reason that MHNT is designed and applied to deal with inhabitants teams that aren’t reached with formal facility-based well being service provision. Evidence additionally recommended that that cellular well being groups are simpler methods to enhance well being outcomes in creating international locations.8 A world report additionally confirmed that MHNT applications are cost-effective in distant and onerous to achieve areas.20 On the opposite hand, MHNTs applications are reported as high-priced by way of availing automobiles and human useful resource associated prices.21 This implies that this system has additional prices associated to car gasoline and well being employees DSA that will justify the necessity to think about ample price range for nationwide degree implementation.

Pertaining to MHNT recruitment and deployment, often, heath employees having higher dedication and expertise are recruited for the MHNT program. Alongside this, medical kits and provides for MHNT program are being made accessible by way of the RHBs and supporting companions in every area. Woredas and companions are additionally filling sporadic shortages of kits and provides often. This is in step with a report from one other examine the place availability of kits and provides for the MHNT program is way enhanced than routine approaches.18

One of the challenges that hinders MHTN program implementation is motion restraint attributable to considerations like recurrent conflicts and related safety issues in each areas. On high of this, the unpredicted mobility of the group has additionally affected the service offered by way of the MHNT. This discovering corroborates with a examine by Olaji et al which reported that motion restrictions affected the profitable implementation of MHNT applications in pastoral areas.19 This implies that the pastoral life-style and their motion sample ought to be thought-about for acceptable design and implementation of efficient MHNT technique within the native context.

This examine additionally indicated that MHNT service supply strategy is nicely accepted by each the group and well being employees in Afar and Somali areas. The discovering is in step with one other examine which confirmed that MHNT program is documented as a handy strategy of well being service supply within the pastoral areas of Ethiopia.19 In one other examine it has been additionally reported that the opinion of the society concerning the usefulness of the MHNT strategy is fully encouraging.18

This examine additionally revealed that the implementation of MHNTs is vastly reliant on the NGO help which is in step with one other examine.18 Moreover, the vehicles used for this system are getting previous and their value of upkeep is rising. This would end in frequent interruptions in service provision.

With regard to financing, each Somali and Afar areas cowl the bills of well being employees deployed for the MHNT program. In addition, Somali regional well being bureau allocates price range for upkeep of automobiles whereas companions cowl the prices for gasoline, provides and buying of automobiles. This exhibits that nationwide degree scale up and sustaining MHNT program will proceed as a problem until there are governmental funding mechanisms to personal this system. A discovering from one other examine additionally indicated that obstacles to the MHNT program implementation ought to be addressed earlier than built-in into the nationwide well being system.8 This clearly exhibits that creating donor exit technique and program sustainability plan in direction of MHNTs is critical for its efficient and standardized implementation at nationwide degree.18

Implications for Policy and Practice

Though, not abundantly applied but in creating international locations, MHNT applications are recommended as different approaches to supply well being service for the underserved group.18 Although the worth of MHNT program is acknowledged in each areas, it has not been thought-about as optionally available strategy for service supply by the RHBs and consequently will not be nicely budgeted. Hence, the FMOH, RHBs and implementing companions ought to develop a joint plan of motion that may point out on how the federal government well being construction will take rising accountability of financing MHNTs for long run sustainability.

While the ministry of well being is in search of state-of-the-art fashions for brining well being care to underserved areas at nationwide degree with an equitable method, it’s but to approve and help the size up of MHNT technique at nationwide degree. Due to this truth, the FMOH has no massive price range contribution to the MHNT program and equally the RHBs will not be mobilizing adequate funding to help this system by their very own. Hence, MHNTs in each Somali and Afar areas are fully reliant on donor help. The findings of this specific examine would possibly information the long run realization of MHNT efficient implementation as a part of the routine well being system of Ethiopia at nationwide degree. Moreover, MHNT standardization and scale up that considers doable challenges, could complement the prevailing follow and increase using scarce sources. It would possibly embody designing mechanisms on how you can combine MHNTs with the prevailing care service supply modalities. In addition, it is usually vital to revise and standardize the MHNT packages and the well being work power necessities earlier than planning nationwide scale up.

Implementing companions which might be presently supporting the MHNT program implementation must also carefully work with the RHBs on easy switch and protected exit earlier than withdrawal. Likewise, the mannequin ought to be personalized in its place well being care provision modality in every district within the areas throughout the earmarked price range allotted from the federal government well being places of work. Finally, the MHNT program must also be led by every district for guaranteeing long run sustainability and environment friendly utilization of the scared sources.


The examine didn’t deal with the cost-effectiveness of the MHNT program by way of the operational prices in each areas. In addition, interviews wouldn’t greatest help to measure acceptability on this examine. Besides, the qualitative findings may not absolutely help analysis of implementation outcomes.

Conclusion and Recommendation

Based on the present evaluation MHNT institution, effectiveness, acceptability and sustainably within the implementing woredas of Afar and Somali area could be very promising. Community and repair supplier satisfaction and notion concerning the MHNT is big and their testimonial is heart-warming. The normal skilled combine and variety of MHNT isn’t being abided in a lot of the groups. The tradition of MHNT reporting, documentation and archiving within the two area wants some enchancment. Besides, group engagement and Government possession are the great driver for sustainability of MHNT service provision.

Standardizing and including further skilled combine like GPs, Laboratory and even diagnostic support like ultrasound had been beneficial. In addition, capability constructing by way of mentoring, teaching and steady skilled growth is essential to make sure service high quality. The experiences of linking tertiary degree well being providers wants like UVP, Fistula and eye associated sickness to Hospitals ought to be inspired. And additionally, technical construction ought to be adopted carefully and higher if program to be led by the woreda. There must also be a strong knowledge capturing and reporting system on the digitalized routine knowledge reporting mechanism by way of DHIS2 to observe program effectiveness and proportion of well being providers offered by the MHNT service modality. For studying and program enchancment function, it’s endorsed to generate proof by way of monitoring, analysis of effectiveness of MHNT service common documentation of classes realized and speaking with stakeholders. Furthermore, group mobilization and woreda management dedication boosting will likely be wanted for granting sustainability. Finally, nationwide scale up of this different technique is beneficial by way of standardized implementation modality.


CFIR, Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research; DHIS2, Demographic Health Information System 2; DSA, Daily Subsistence Allowance; KII, Key Informant Interview; MHNTs, Mobile Health and Nutrition Team service; MOH, Ministry of Health; RHB, PHCU, Primary Health Care Unit; Regional Health Bureau; SDGs, Sustainable Development Goals; UHC, Universal Health Coverage; UNICEF, United Nations Children’s Fund.

Data Sharing Statement

Data may very well be accessible upon an affordable request from the corresponding writer.

Consent to Participate

Informed consent was sought from contributors and anonymized responses had been included. Accordingly, contributors knowledgeable consent included publication of anonymized responses.


We thank the regional well being bureaus for his or her cooperation and help in facilitating and offering all the required data. We would additionally prefer to thank the important thing informant interviews on the regional, woreda and MHNTs ranges. The Abstract of this doc is offered within the annual efficiency evaluate of Ministry of Health Ethiopia as one in every of greatest expertise within the theme constructing resilient well being system and is on the ministry website online.

Author Contributions

All authors made a major contribution to the work reported, whether or not that’s within the conception, examine design, execution, acquisition of information, evaluation and interpretation, or in all these areas; took half in drafting, revising or critically reviewing the article; gave ultimate approval of the model to be revealed; have agreed on the journal to which the article has been submitted; and comply with be accountable for all features of the work.


The examine was financially supported by the Ministry of Health-Ethiopia.


The authors report no conflicts of curiosity on this work.


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