Very low calorie diet significantly alters gut microbiota composition: Study

Jun 26, 2021 22:06 IST

Washington [US], June 26 (ANI): During a latest examine, researchers from Charite Universitatsmedizin Berlin and the University of California in San Francisco for the primary time confirmed {that a} very low-calorie food regimen significantly alters the composition of the microbiota current within the human intestine.
In the examine revealed within the Journal Nature publication, the researchers report that weight-reduction plan ends in a rise of particular micro organism, notably Clostridioides difficile, which is related to antibiotic-induced diarrhea and colitis.
These micro organism apparently have an effect on the physique’s power stability by exerting an affect on the absorption of vitamins from the intestine.
The human intestine microbiome consists of trillions of microorganisms and differs from one particular person to the following. In individuals who’re obese or overweight, for example, its composition is thought to be totally different from that present in people with regular physique weight. Many of us will, in some unspecified time in the future in our lives, attempt weight-reduction plan with a view to shed weight.
But what impact does such a drastic change in food regimen have on our our bodies? An worldwide workforce of researchers co-led by Charite has addressed this query. “For the primary time, we have been in a position to present {that a} very low-calorie food regimen produces main modifications within the composition of the intestine microbiome and that these modifications have an effect on the host’s power stability,” mentioned Prof. Dr Joachim Spranger, Head of Charite’s Department of Endocrinology and Metabolic Diseases and one of many examine’s lead authors.
To discover the consequences of weight-reduction plan the workforce studied 80 older (post-menopausal) girls whose weight ranged from barely obese to severely overweight for a period of 16 weeks. The girls both adopted a medically supervised meal alternative regime, consuming shakes totaling lower than 800 energy a day, or maintained their weight during the examine.
The individuals have been examined on the Experimental and Clinical Research Center (ECRC), a facility collectively operated by Charite and the Max Delbruck Center for Molecular Medicine (MDC). Regular stool pattern evaluation confirmed that weight-reduction plan lowered the variety of microorganisms current within the intestine and altered the composition of the intestine microbiome.

“We have been in a position to observe how the micro organism tailored their metabolism with a view to soak up extra sugar molecules and, by doing so, make them unavailable to their human host. One may say we noticed the event of a ‘hungry microbiome’,” mentioned the examine’s first creator, Dr. Reiner Jumpertz von Schwartzenberg, a researcher and clinician on the Department of Endocrinology and Metabolic Diseases whose work on the examine was funded by the Clinician Scientist program operated by Charite and the Berlin Institute of Health (BIH).
Stool samples, which had been collected earlier than and after weight-reduction plan, have been then transferred into mice that had been saved below germ-free circumstances and, because of this, lacked all intestine microbiota. The outcomes have been staggering: Animals that obtained post-dieting”>weight-reduction plan stools misplaced greater than 10 per cent of their physique mass. Pre-diet stools had no impact in anyway.
“Our outcomes present that this phenomenon is primarily defined by modifications within the absorption of vitamins from the animals’ guts,” mentioned Prof. Spranger. He added: “This highlights the truth that intestine micro organism have a significant impression on the absorption of meals.”
When the researchers studied stool composition in better element, they have been notably struck by indicators of elevated colonization by a selected bacterium — Clostridioides difficile. While this microorganism is usually discovered within the pure setting and within the guts of wholesome human beings and animals, its numbers within the intestine can enhance in response to antibiotic use, probably leading to extreme irritation of the intestine wall.
It is often known as some of the widespread hospital-associated pathogens. Increased portions of the bacterium have been discovered each in individuals who had accomplished the load loss routine and in mice who had obtained post-dieting” intestine micro organism.
“We have been in a position to present that C. difficile produced the toxins sometimes related to this bacterium and that this was what the animals’ weight reduction was contingent upon,” defined Prof. Spranger. He added: “Despite that, neither the individuals nor the animals confirmed related indicators of intestine irritation.”
Summing up the outcomes of the analysis, Prof. Spranger says, “A really low-calorie food regimen severely modifies our intestine microbiome and seems to cut back the colonization resistance for the hospital-associated bacterium Clostridioides difficile.
These modifications render the absorption of vitamins throughout the intestine wallless environment friendly, notably with out producing related medical signs. What stays unclear is whether or not or to which extent this sort of asymptomatic colonization by C. difficile may impair or probably enhance an individual’s well being. This needs to be explored in bigger research.”
Results from the present examine, which additionally obtained funding from the German Center for Cardiovascular Disease (DZHK), may even give rise to remedy choices for metabolic problems resembling weight problems and diabetes. For this cause, the researchers will now discover how intestine micro organism is perhaps influenced with a view to produce useful results on the load and metabolism of their human hosts. (ANI)

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